Understanding the JMF RTP API

You can play incoming RTP streams locally, save them to a file, or both.

Figure 8-1: RTP reception.

You can use the RTP APIs to transmit captured or stored media streams across the network. Outgoing RTP streams can originate from a file or a capture device. The outgoing streams can also be played locally, saved to a file, or both.

Figure 8-2: RTP transmission.

RTP Architecture

The JMF RTP APIs are designed to work seamlessly with the capture, presentation, and processing capabilities of JMF.

Figure 8-3: High-level JMF RTP architecture.

Session Manager

In JMF, a SessionManager is used to coordinate an RTP session. The SessionManager interface defines methods that enable an application to initialize and start participating in a session, remove individual streams created by the application, and close the entire session.
Session Statistics
  • The session manager maintains statistics on all of the RTP and RTCP packets sent and received in the session. Statistics are tracked for the entire session on a per-stream basis.
  • Session Participants
    The session manager keeps track of all of the participants in a session. Each participant is represented by an instance of a class that implements the Participantinterface. SessionManager create a Participant whenever an RTCP packet arrives that contains a source description (SDES) with a canonical name(CNAME) that has not been seen before.

    A participant can own more than one stream, each of which is identified by the synchronization source identifier (SSRC) used by the source of the stream.

    Session Streams
    The SessionManager maintains an RTPStream object for each stream of RTP data packets in the session. There are two types of RTP streams: A ReceiveStreamis constructed automatically whenever the session manager detects a new source of RTP data. To create a new SendStream, you call the SessionManagercreate.SendStreammethod.

    RTP Events

    Several RTP-specific events are defined in javax.media.rtp.event. These events are used to report on the state of the RTP session and streams.
    Figure 8-4: RTP events.

    To receive notification of RTP events, you implement the appropriate RTP listener and register it with the session manager:

    Session Listener
    There are two types of session-wide events:
    Send Stream Listener
    There are five types of events associated with a SendStream:
    Receive Stream Listener

    There are seven types of events associated with a ReceiveStream:

    Remote Listener

    There are three types of events associated with a remote participant:

    RTP Data

    The streams within an RTP session are represented by RTPStream objects. There are two types of RTPStreams: ReceiveStream and SendStream. Each RTP stream has a buffer data source associated with it. For ReceiveStreams, this DataSource is always a PushBufferDataSource.

    RTP Data Formats

    All RTP-specific data uses an RTP-specific format encoding as defined in the AudioFormat and VideoFormat classes.

    AudioFormat defines four standard RTP-specific encoding strings:

    public static final String ULAW_RTP = "JAUDIO_G711_ULAW/rtp";
    public static final String DVI_RTP = "dvi/rtp";
    public static final String G723_RTP = "g723/rtp";
    public static final String GSM_RTP = "gsm/rtp";
    VideoFormat defines three standard RTP-specific encoding strings:
    public static final String JPEG_RTP = "jpeg/rtp";
    public static final String H261_RTP = "h261/rtp";
    public static final String H263_RTP = "h263/rtp";

    RTP Controls

    RTPControl  provides methods for accessing session statistics and getting the current payload Format.


    The presentation of an incoming RTP stream is handled by a Player. To receive and present a single stream from an RTP session, you can use a MediaLocator that describes the session to construct a Player. A media locator for an RTP session is of the form:
    The Player is constructed and connected to the first stream in the session.

    If there are multiple streams in the session that you want to present, you need to use a session manager. You can receive notification from the session manager whenever a stream is added to the session and construct a Player for each new stream. Using a session manager also enables you to directly monitor and control the session.


    To create a send stream to transmit data from a live capture source:
    1. Create, initialize, and start a SessionManager for the session.
    2. Construct a Processor using the appropriate capture DataSource.
    3. Set the output format of the Processor to an RTP-specific format.
    4. Retrieve the output DataSource from the Processor.
    5. Call createSendStream on the session manager and pass in the DataSource.
    You control the transmission through the SendStream start and stop methods.