Grammar Notes & Considerations
1 APA Formatting Reminders
APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font or similar throughout. Do not vary the font or the size of your text, even for headings.
View Sample Lab 1 carefully to make sure your paper matches the format exactly, down to the margins, the headers, and the amount of spaces in between sections.
A Level 1 heading should be centered, bolded, and title case.
A Level 2 heading should be flush with the left margin, bolded, and title case.
For further formatting guidance, visit the Purdue OWL
2 Grammar Mistakes
Punctuation is either missing or unnecessarily included. For punctuation information, visit Purdue OWL
Homophones are words that sound the same but are spelled differently, such as “there,” their,” and “they’re.” For a list of homophones, refer to Purdue OWL
2.3 Incorrect Word
This word doesn’t make sense in or isn’t appropriate for the context.
2.4 Missing Word
A word is missing to make this a complete thought or sentence.
2.5 Possessive vs. Plural
Possessive nouns indicate ownership, such as “the flower’s petals” or “the students’ chairs.” Plural nouns never have an apostrophe before or after the “s.” (“The many flowers” or “the responsible students.”) Here is a lesson on possessive and plural nouns: http://www.darton.edu/programs/Humanities/writing/pdfs/OWC/Grammar/Punctuation/Plural_vs_Possessive.pdf
2.6 Singular vs. Plural
This word is singular and should be plural, or vice-versus.
2.7 Too Much Ambiguity
It is unclear to what or to whom this pronoun is referring.
2.8 Stronger Verb
A punchier verb would make the sentence sturdier. For a list of verbs, refer to http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~cainproj/writingtips/preciseverbs.html
2.9 Verb Tense
The verb tense shifted from one sentence or thought to the next. For help with verb usage, visit https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/601/01/
2.10 Unnecessary Word
This word is not necessary, either due to a typo or wordiness.
2.11 Awkward or Verbose Phrasing
A modified version of this sentence or phrase would be clearer and easier to read. Here is some guidance for concise writing: https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/CCS_wordyphrases.html https://owl.english.purdue.edu/exercises/6/9/24
2.12 Repetitive Word Use
This word or phrase has been used too frequently. Try restructuring your sentence or using a different word to make your paper more readable.
2.13 Confusing Sentence
This sentence is either confusing or awkward to read. Evaluate the message you are trying to convey and make that the focus of the sentence.
2.14 Parallel Structure
Parallel structure means using the same word pattern in a sequence. For example, instead of saying, “She enjoys baking, shopping, and to pet cats,” try, “She enjoys baking, shopping, and petting cats.” For more examples and practice, see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/623/01/
2.15 Singular Plural Disagreement
The subject and the verb need to be both singular or both plural. For a lesson and practice quiz, visit http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/subjectVerbAgree.asp
2.16 Active vs. Passive Voice
Sometimes passive voice can be ok, especially in technical writing, but avoid excessive or awkward use. Here are examples of the difference between active and passive sentences and how to use them appropriately: http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/activepassive.html
2.17 Too Causal
This phrase or sentence is too casual for academic writing.
2.18 Misplaced Word
A word is misplaced so that it seems to be describing a different word than intended. For example, in this sentence, “I picked the cat at the store with grey stripes,” it seems like the store had grey stripes instead of the cat. Instead, the sentence should read, “I picked the cat with grey stripes at the store.” For more information, see https://webapps.towson.edu/ows/moduledangling.htm
2.19 Word Choice
Replace with a stronger, more descriptive or active word. Visit http://www.thesaurus.com to look up powerful synonyms and antonyms.
2.20 Comma Splice
A comma splice occurs when two independent clauses are improperly conjoined with a simple comma and no transition words. The comma may be replaced with a semicolon, or supplemented with a transition word or phrase. For examples, see https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/1/34/