A Gallery of Algorithmic Styles
Steven J. Zeil
Suppose you have to design a brandnew algorithm to do something never done before. You could start from scratch, given the problem statement and a programming language textbook, and you might come up with something useful.
But certain distinctive styles of algorithms have arisen over the years, and being familiar with these may give you an edge in coming up with a welldesigned algorithm for a new task.
We’ve actually seen a number of these already, but it’s time to put some names to them and take stock of what we’ve got:
A first question we might ask about any algorithm is how it manages to process multiple “pieces” of data:

Iterative: algorithms that work by looping

Recursive: algorithms that call themselves (directly or indirectly)
Among both iterative and recursive algorithms, we recognize some algorithms by an underlying “idea” of how they work:

Generic

Divide and conquer

Generate and test

Backtracking

Convergent

Dynamic programming
Now let’s look at some common forms of both iterative and recursive algorithms.
1 Divide and conquer
Perhaps the most widely recognized algorithmic style is “divide and conquer”. In this approach to design, a problem is broken into two or more smaller subproblems, the subproblems are solved, and the resulting subproblem solutions are recombined into a whole solution.
If this sounds suspiciously similar to my description of recursion, that’s no accident. Divide and conquer algorithms frequently are easily expressed recursively, though iterative forms are not unknown.
Examples of divide and conquer that we have seen include the binary search, merge sort, and quick sort.
2 Generic
One of the most recent categories of algorithms to be recognized, generic algorithms are those that use a generalpurpose “iterator” interface to process a range of data that could, in fact, be residing in almost any kind of container.
The copy
function shown here is a good example of a generic algorithm, but so are any algorithms that make liberal use of copy
and its “cousins” among the standard library templates.
template <class InputIterator,
class OutputIterator>
OutputIterator copy(InputIterator first,
InputIterator last,
OutputIterator result)
{
while (first != last)
{
*result = *first;
result++; first++;
}
return result;
}
In fact, the STL (standard template library), that eventually became part of the C++ standard library, was originally constructed as a showcase for the idea of generic programming.
3 Generate and test
A “generate and test” algorithm uses some relatively quick process to produce a series of “guesses” as to the appropriate solution, then tests each guess in turn to see if it is, in fact, a solution.
You can see generate and test in action in this code for producing random permutations.
//
// Generate a random permutation of the integers from
// 0 .. n1, storing the results in array a.
//
void permute1 (int a[], int n)
{
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
a[i] = rnd(n);
while (find(a,a+i,a[i]) != a+i)
a[i] = rnd(n);
}
}

The random numbers are used to generate a possible value for the $i^{\mbox{th}}$ number in the permutation.

Then a search is used to test and see if that number has already been used.
Now, this is actually a pretty terrible way to generate random permutations, and you have seen a better approach in one of the earlier assignments. Generateandtest is often used as a fallback when we can’t come up with a better algorithm.
4 Backtracking
A variation of generateandtest is backtracking. Backtracking is a technique that can be applied to problems where you have a large, but finite number of variables, each of which may take on a number of discrete values, and there is some overall test to decide if the entire set of assignments represents an acceptable solution.
4.1 Example: The 3Houses Puzzle
An example of backtracking can be seen in the solution technique many people take to problems like this:
There are 3 adjacent houses, one red, one blue, and one green on Elm St. Each is occupied by a single person, and each has a garden with one kind of flower.
Bob does not live in the green house.
Pat lives between Bob and Sue.
Sue planted daisies.
Lilies are planted at the blue house.
The leftmost house has roses.
List the colors of the houses, the occupants, and their flowers, from left to right.
One way to approach this is to make a grid:
left  middle  right  

House  
Flowers  
Person 
and list the possible values for each row:
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
Now, try assigning values in each slot, until a contradiction is reached with one of the rules.
Let’s guess that the leftmost house is Blue:
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
and the middle one Green
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
and the right one Red:
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  red 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
None of these lead to any contradictions with the rules. So let’s move on to the next row.
Let’s put daisies in the leftmost house.
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  red 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  daisies  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
Now we have our first contradiction. Rule 4 says that lilies are planted at the blue house and rule 5 says that the leftmost house has roses. So what do we do? We retract our most recent guess, and try a different value for that same slot. Sticking with alphabetic order, we try lilies:
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  red 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  lilies  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
Again, a contradiction (rule 5). So we retract that guess and try roses.
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  red 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  roses  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
But that contradicts rule 4 (Lilies are planted at the blue house.). Now we have tried all possible kinds of flowers at this position. Since none of them work, we know that one of our earlier decisions has already precluded any possible solution. Which one? We’re probably not sure. So we retract our guess and backtrack to the slot before this one and try something else.
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  red 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
But we have no open alternatives for the color of the rightmost house, either. So we retract that guess and backtrack again:
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  green  
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
Here we can try a different possibility: maybe the middle house is red.
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  red  
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
and the rightmost house would have to be green.
left  middle  right  

House (blue, green, red)  blue  red  green 
Flowers (daisies, lilies, roses)  
Person (Bob, Pat, Sue) 
You can probably see that this won’t work out either. Eventually we will have to back all the way up to our first decision, and try a different color for the leftmost house.
Hopefully, you can see that, given enough time, this systematic approach would eventually arrive at a solution if one is possible, or would conclusively prove that no solution is possible.
Now, this isn’t the fastest or smartest way to go about solving this problem. Humans can do much better, relying on a little foresight and intuition. But computers are notoriously lacking in both foresight and intuition.
We use backtracking largely in cases where we can’t find a more sophisticated way to arrive at a solution.
4.2 A Tabular Approach to Backtracking
The essence of backtracking is:

Number the solution variables $[v_0, v_1, \ldots, v_{n1}]$.

Number the possible values for each variable $[c_0, c_1, \ldots, c_{k1}]$.

Start by assigning $c_0$ to each $v_i$.

If we have an acceptable solution, stop.

If the current solution is not acceptable, let
i = n1
. 
If
i < 0
, stop and signal that no solution is possible. 
Let
j
be the index of the value assigned to variable $v_i$ (i.e., $v_i = c_j$). If $j < k1$, assign $c_{j+1}$ to $v_i$ and go back to step 4. 
But if $j \geq k1$, assign $c_0$ to $v_i$, decrement i, and go back to step 6.
There are lots of variations possible. It’s fairly easy to modify this scheme to deal with situations where different variables have different sets of possible values.
Many gameplaying programs use a form of this kind of backtracking to select the computer’s move.
4.2.1 Example: The 3House Puzzle
There are 9 variables in this problem: color_{L}, color_{M}, color_{R}, flowers_{L}, flowers_{M}, flowers_{R}, person_{L}, person_{M}, and person_{R}, where the “L”, “M”, and “R” subscripts denote “left”, “Middle”, and “Right”, respectively.
Each can take on 3 possible values. Letting blue=daisies=Bob=0, green=lilies=Pat=1, and red=roses=Sue=2, we can represent our progress through the problem like this:
Start with none of the variables assigned.
color_{L}  color_{M}  color_{R}  flowers_{L}  flowers_{M}  flowers_{R}  person_{L}  person_{M}  person_{R} 

Then assign red to the left house:
color_{L}  color_{M}  color_{R}  flowers_{L}  flowers_{M}  flowers_{R}  person_{L}  person_{M}  person_{R} 

0 
and green to the middle house:
color_{L}  color_{M}  color_{R}  flowers_{L}  flowers_{M}  flowers_{R}  person_{L}  person_{M}  person_{R} 

0  1 
Continuing on, we can show the whole progress (up to the point where we stopped earlier), showing each step as a separate line:
color_{L}  color_{M}  color_{R}  flowers_{L}  flowers_{M}  flowers_{R}  person_{L}  person_{M}  person_{R} 

0  
0  1  
0  1  2  
0  1  2  0  
0  1  2  1  
0  1  2  2  
0  2  
0  2  1 
and so on.
Actually, even here we may have played fast and loose a little with the rules. How did we know that the middle house should start with color 1 instead of 0? Only because there is an implicit rule saying that there can only be a single house of each color. A violation of that rule is just another contradiction, so we could actually argue that the steps we went through were:
color_{L}  color_{M}  color_{R}  flowers_{L}  flowers_{M}  flowers_{R}  person_{L}  person_{M}  person_{R} 

0  
0  0  
0  1  
0  1  0  
0  1  1  
0  1  2  
0  1  2  0  
0  1  2  1  
0  1  2  2  
0  2  
0  2  0  
0  2  1 
and so on. This is more typical of how we would be likely to program a solution.
4.3 A Recursive Approach to Backtracking
Here’s another way to think about this process.
This tree shows the “solution space” for a backtracking problem. At one level is the first problem variable with all of its possible solution values. Each node at the first level represents a possible value for the variable $v_0$.
Now, for each possible value of $v_0$, we have a number of possible values for the next problem variable, $v_1$. These are shown at the next level of the tree. And for each pair of possible values for $v_0$ and $v_1$, we have a number of possibilities for $v_2$, and so on. Each path from the top of this tree to any of the bottom nodes represents a distinct potential solution to the problem.
This tree isn’t infinitely large  we only have a finite number of variables in the problem. But the total number of possibilities can be mindboggling.
The traditional way to program backtracking has been to write a recursive function to search this solution space. The first call deals with possible values for $v_0$, and loops through each one in turn. For each possible value of $v_0$, we recursively call the same routine, but instruct it to work with $v_1$ instead of $v_0$. That recursive call will loop through all possible values of $v_1$, trying each one and then recursively calling itself with instructions to work on $v_2$, and so on.
4.3.1 Example: Scheduling
The CS Dept. has a list of courses to offer next semester, and a list of available time slots in which to place them.
Some courses “conflict” – they cannot be scheduled at the same time because

students may want to take both courses in the same semester

the same faculty member is teaching both.
Suppose that the classes are numbered 0 ... NumClasses1
, and that the time slots are numbered 0 ... NumTimes1
.
We will assume that someone has already written a function
bool conflicts(int class1, int class2);
to determine if two classes conflict.
Our job is to write the function that actually does the scheduling. We will store the schedule in
vector<int> timeOfClass (numClasses, 1);
so that timeOfClass[c]
is the time slot in which class c
has been scheduled (1 indicates that we have not yet assigned a time to c
).
We start by defining a utility function, noConflicts
, to determine if it’s OK to assign a given class to a given time slot.
bool noConflicts (int class, int time)
// Would assigning the given class to the given time
// cause a conflict with any already scheduled classes?
// Return true if no conflicts would be caused.
{
for (int c = 0; c < class; ++c)
{
if (timeOfClass[c] = time // if c is already schedule at this time
&& conflicts(c, class)) // and c conflicts with class
return false; // then we can't schedule class at this time
}
return true;
}
noConflicts simply examines every other class already in this time slot to see if it conflicts with this one.
Here, then, is the main scheduling algorithm. schedule(i)
returns true if it is able to schedule all the classes from i ... numClasses1
.
bool schedule(int class)
{
if (class == NumClasses)
return true;
else
for (int t = 1; t <= NumTimes; ++t)
{
if (noConflicts(class, t))
{
timeOfClass[class] = t;
if (schedule(i+1)) return true;
}
}
timeOfClass[class] = 1;
return false; // all choices failed
}
It does this by trying every plausible time slot for class i
until it finds one that allows all the remaining classes to be (recursively) scheduled.
If it can’t find a slot in which to place class i
, it returns false. Whenever a recursive call from schedule
returns false
back to an earlier call of itself, the earlier call is forced to try a different time slot for a previously scheduled class.
4.3.2 WorstCase Analysis
Analysis:
noConflicts() is $O(\mbox{class})$.
bool noConflicts (int class, int time)
// Would assigning the given class to the given time
// cause a conflict with any already scheduled classes?
// Return true if no conflicts would be caused.
{
for (int c = 0; c < class; ++c)
{
if (timeOfClass[c] = time
&& conflicts(c, class))
return false;
}
return true;
}
bool schedule(int class)
{
if (class == NumClasses)
return true;
else
for (int t = 1; t <= NumTimes; ++t)
{
if (noConflicts(class, t))
{
timeOfClass[class] = t;
if (schedule(i+1)) return true;
}
}
timeOfClass[class] = 1;
return false; // all choices failed
}
The worst case of schedule() occurs when no schedule is possible. Then each class will be tried in each time slot. So for the first class, there will be NumTimes
possibilities. For each of those possibilities, the second class will have a further NumTimes
possibilities of its own, for a total of $\mbox{NumTimes}^2$ possibilities for the two classes. Continuing on, the total number of possibilities for all classes is $\mbox{NumTimes}^{\mbox{NumClasses}}$.
Each try involves a call to noConflicts, so the overall algorithm is $O\left(\mbox{NumClasses}*\mbox{NumTimes}^{\mbox{NumClasses}}\right)$. We say that this routine is exponential in NumClasses
. Such exponential growth is worse, for sufficiently large inputs, than any polynomial bigO().
4.4 An Iterative Framework for Backtracking
Can we do this without the recursion?
Yes.
Let’s return again to the tree view of the possible solutions to a backtracking problem.
Let’s assume our tree has 5 levels, corresponding to $v_0$ through $v_4$, and that each variable can take on any of 3 values. Now, suppose we list the possible solutions from left to right in this tree, listing each one from $v_{n1}$ down to $v_0$. The leftmost path in the tree is 00000, then 00001, then 00002, 00010, 00011, 00012, 00020, … . You can see that all we are doing is counting in “base 3”. If our variables could have taken on 10 different values instead of just three, we’d be counting in our “traditional” base10 number system. [^ And if the variables could take on different numbers of values, the numbering system might look strange, but we could still recognize it as a kind of counting.]
So, if we had an ADT for counting N digit numbers in an arbitrary base, we could use that as a kind of generator for backtracking solutions.
4.4.1 The BackTrack class
The code shown here represents a backtracking state generator.
class BackTrack {
public:
BackTrack (unsigned nVariables, unsigned arity=2);
// Create a backtracking state for a problem with
// nVariables variables, each of which has the same
// number of possible values (arity).
template <class Iterator>
BackTrack (Iterator arityBegin,
Iterator arityEnd);
// Create a backtracking state in which each variable may have
// a different number of possible values. The values are obtained
// as integers stored in positions arityBegin .. arityEnd as per
// the usual conventions for C++ iterators. The number of
// variables in the system are inferred from the number of
// positions in the given range.
unsigned operator[] (unsigned variableNumber) const;
// Returns the current value associated with the indicated
// variable.
unsigned numberOfVariables() const;
// Returns the number of variables in the backtracking system.
unsigned arity (unsigned variableNumber) const;
// Returns the number of potential values that can be assigned
// to the indicated variable.
bool more() const;
// Indicates whether additional candidate solutions exist that
// can be reached by subsequent ++ or prune operations.
void prune (unsigned level);
// Indicates that the combination of values associated with
// variables 0 .. level1 (inclusive) has been judged unacceptable
// (regardless of the values that could be given to variables
// level..numberOfVariables()1. The backtracking state will advance
// to the next solution in which at least one of the values in the
// variables 0..level1 will have changed.
BackTrack& operator++();
// Indicates that the combination of values associated with
// variables 0 .. nVariables1 (inclusive) has been judged unacceptable.
// The backtracking state will advance
// to the next solution in which at least one of the values in the
// variables 0..level1 will have changed.
BackTrack operator++(int);
// Same as other operator++, but returns a copy of the old backtrack state
private:
bool done;
vector<unsigned> arities;
vector<unsigned> values;
};
The constructors allow us to indicate how many variables we need and what the “arity” (number of possible values) for them are. For example
BackTrack problem(9, 3);
would create backtracking state problem
with 9 variables, each of which can take on the values 0, 1, or 2.
The current value of any variable can be read using the square brackets operator:
cout << "Variable " << i
<< " has value " << problem[i]
<< endl;
We can advance to the next possible state using the ++
operator, and the more()
function tells us if we have tried every possible combination. For example, if we were to simply loop through all possible states:
BackTrack problem(4, 3);
// 4 questions, each with 3 possible answers
while (problem.more())
{
for (int i = 0; i < 4; ++i)
cout << problem[i] << ' ';
cout << endl;
++problem;
}
the output would be: 0000, 0001, 0002, 0010, 0011, 0012, 0020, 0021, 0022, 0100, … , 2222.
A typical backtracking problem can then be solved this way:
BackTrack problem(nVariables, nValues);
bool solved = false;
while ((!solved) && problem.more())
{
solved = checkSolution(problem);
if (!solved)
++problem;
}
where checkSolution
is a function that returns true if the current problem state is an acceptable solution.
4.4.2 Example: Iterative Solution of 3Houses
Let’s look at how to use this class to solve the 3houses puzzle. In this puzzle, we have a total of 9 variables. We give them names here, assigning those names to the integers from 0 to 8.
enum Questions {colorOfHouse1=0,
colorOfHouse2=1,
colorOfHouse3=2,
flowersAtHouse1=3,
flowersAtHouse2=4,
flowersAtHouse3=5,
occupantOfHouse1=6,
occupantOfHouse2=7,
occupantOfHouse3=8};
Although each group of three variables represents something different, it so happens that all the variables can take on three possible values.
enum Colors {red=0, blue=1, green=2};
const char* colorNames[] = {"red", "blue", "green"};
enum Occupants {bob=0, pat=1, sue=2};
const char* occupantNames[] = {"Bob", "Pat", "Sue"};
enum Flowers {daisies=0, lilies=1, roses=2};
const char* flowerNames[] = {"daisies", "lilies", "roses"};
Again, we’ll give these descriptive names, but bind them to the integers 0, 1, and 2.
The related arrays of character strings are useful for output purposes:
void describeHouse(int houseNumber,
Occupants occupant,
Colors c, Flowers f)
{
cout << occupantNames[occupant]
<< " lives in house " << houseNumber
<< ", which is painted " << colorNames[c]
<< " and has "
<< flowerNames[f] << endl;
}
Now we’re ready to set up the main routine for the solution. This just adds a bit of output to the basic solution loop.
int main()
{
BackTrack problem(9, 3);
// 9 questions, each with 3 possible answers
bool solved = false;
while ((!solved) && problem.more())
{
for (int i = 0; i < 9; ++i)
cout << problem[i] << ' ';
cout << endl;
solved = checkSolution(problem);
if (!solved)
++problem;
}
if (solved)
{
describeHouse(1,
(Occupants)problem[occupantOfHouse1],
(Colors)problem[colorOfHouse1],
(Flowers)problem[flowersAtHouse1]);
describeHouse(2,
(Occupants)problem[occupantOfHouse2],
(Colors)problem[colorOfHouse2],
(Flowers)problem[flowersAtHouse2]);
describeHouse(3,
(Occupants)problem[occupantOfHouse3],
(Colors)problem[colorOfHouse3],
(Flowers)problem[flowersAtHouse3]);
}
else
cout << "Problem has no solution" << endl;
}
Of course, all the “good stuff” is in the checkSolution
function  that’s where we have to determine whether the current set of numbers represent a possible solution to the puzzle or not.
We’ll take this in stages.
bool checkSolution(const BackTrack& bt)
// Check the state of bt to see if it
// represents a valid solution.
{
bool OK = true;
// Implicit rule: each house is different
if (bt[occupantOfHouse1] == bt[occupantOfHouse2])
OK = false;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse1] == bt[occupantOfHouse3])
OK = false;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] == bt[occupantOfHouse3])
OK = false;
⋮
OK
will represent the result of our tests overall. It starts out true
but will be set to false the moment we find a contradiction between the current problem state and the rules of the puzzle.
The first rules to be checked are implicit ones. Bob can’t live in more than one house in this problem, and neither can Sue or Pat. So if any two houses have the same occupant, set OK
to false. Note that bt[occupantOfHouse1]
denotes the current assignment, in bt
, to the occupantOfHouse1
variable. It will either be bob
(0), pat
(1), or sue
(2).
We have similar rules for the house colors and the flowers.
⋮
if (bt[colorOfHouse1] == bt[colorOfHouse2])
OK = false;
if (bt[colorOfHouse1] == bt[colorOfHouse3])
OK = false;
if (bt[colorOfHouse2] == bt[colorOfHouse3])
OK = false;
if (bt[flowersAtHouse1] == bt[flowersAtHouse2])
OK = false;
if (bt[flowersAtHouse1] == bt[flowersAtHouse3])
OK = false;
if (bt[flowersAtHouse2] == bt[flowersAtHouse3])
OK = false;
⋮
⋮
// 1. Bob does not live in the green house.
int bobsHouse = indexOf(bt, bob,
occupantOfHouse1,
occupantOfHouse2,
occupantOfHouse3);
int greenHouse = indexOf(bt, green,
colorOfHouse1,
colorOfHouse2,
colorOfHouse3);
if (bobsHouse  occupantOfHouse1 == greenHouse  colorOfHouse1)
OK = false;
⋮
Now we’re ready to consider the explicit rules of the puzzle. For rule 1, we need to know which house bob lives in and which house is green.
We’ll need to do a lot of this kind of lookup in this function, so we’ll introduce a utility function, indexOf
, that tells us which of three variable numbers contains a desired value.
int indexOf (const BackTrack& bt, int value,
int candidate1, int candidate2,
int candidate3)
{
if (bt[candidate1] == value)
return candidate1;
else if (bt[candidate2] == value)
return candidate2;
else
return candidate3;
}
Note that the indexOf
calls give us variable numbers (in this case, in the range 0 … 8). To get the house number, we need to subtract the variable number of the first of each group of three variables. Thus bobsHouse
actually contains the index of the variable describing Bob’s location. To get the actual house number, we subtract occupantOfHouse1
.
⋮
// 2. Pat lives between Bob and Sue.
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] != pat)
OK = false;
⋮
The next rule is easy. If Pat lives between them, Pat must be in the second house.
The code for the third rule looks much like the code for the first rule.
⋮
// 3. Sue planted daisies.
int suesHouse = indexOf(bt, sue,
occupantOfHouse1,
occupantOfHouse2,
occupantOfHouse3);
int daisiesHouse = indexOf(bt, daisies,
flowersAtHouse1,
flowersAtHouse2,
flowersAtHouse3);
if (suesHouse  occupantOfHouse1 != daisiesHouse  flowersAtHouse1)
OK = false;
⋮
⋮
// 4. Lilies are planted at the blue house.
int liliesHouse = indexOf(bt, lilies,
flowersAtHouse1,
flowersAtHouse2,
flowersAtHouse3);
int blueHouse = indexOf(bt, blue,
colorOfHouse1,
colorOfHouse2,
colorOfHouse3);
if (liliesHouse  flowersAtHouse1 != blueHouse  colorOfHouse1)
OK = false;
⋮
And so does the 4th rule.
⋮
// 5. The leftmost house has roses.
if (bt[flowersAtHouse1] != roses)
OK = false;
return OK;
}
And the fifth and final rule is easy.
If we throw all this together and run it we would see the following output:
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
⋮
… and, about 4000 lines later …
⋮
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 2
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2
Bob lives in house 1, which is painted red and has roses
Pat lives in house 2, which is painted blue and has lilies
Sue lives in house 3, which is painted green and has daisies
4.5 Pruning
Backtracking, despite its exponentialtime behavior, continues to arise in problems for which no better solution method is known. A lot of effort goes into finding ways to speed up its average performance.
One of the most common improvements is to use an some kind of “early” test to determine if a particular assignment to a particular variable is plausible rather than always waiting until all variables have been assigned to do any checking. For example, in the 3houses puzzle, we can immediately reject any proposed solution that has Pat in houses 1 or 3, and there’s no point cycling through all the combinations of the other variables once we see this.
Again, if we think of the set of possible solutions in terms of a tree, as shown here, then the use of these early “plausibility” tests may have the effect of pruning entire branches of the tree, meaning that we don’t actually need to explore all those alternatives.
Note that the effect of “pruning” is most significant when it can occur early in the tree. A lot of research and design effort has gone into ideas like trying to reorder the variables and/or values so that pruning will occur as early as possible.
4.5.1 Pruning and the BackTrack class
Our backtracking state generator can easily accommodate pruning.
class BackTrack {
public:
⋮
void prune (unsigned level);
// Indicates that the combination of values associated with
// variables 0 .. level1 (inclusive) has been judged unacceptable
// (regardless of the values that could be given to variables
// level..numberOfVariables()1. The backtracking state will
// advance to the next solution in which at least one of the
// values in the variables 0..level1 will have changed.
⋮
In fact, the “normal” ++
operator is actually implemented as prune(numberOfVariables())
(which is no pruning at all.)
Let’s look, briefly, at just how the backtracking generator works.
class BackTrack {
public:
⋮
private:
bool done;
vector<unsigned> arities;
vector<unsigned> values;
};
We use a vector to hold the current values for all of our variables. We also have a vector, arities
, that indicates the number of different values each variable can take on.
In the problems we have been looking at, all the variables have the same arity, but this isn’t true for all backtracking problems.
When we create a new backtracking state, we start with all the variable values set to zero.
BackTrack::BackTrack (unsigned nVariables, unsigned arity=2)
// Create a backtracking state for a problem with
// nVariables variables, each of which has the same
// number of possible values (arity).
: arities(nVariables, arity), values(nVariables, 0), done(false)
{
}
Pruning is accomplished by treating variables 0 … level1
as a level
digit number, adding 1 to it using the same “add and carry to the left” procedure you learned in gradeschool arithmetic.
void BackTrack::prune (unsigned level)
// Indicates that the combination of values associated with
// variables 0 .. level1 (inclusive) has been judged unacceptable
// (regardless of the values that could be given to variables
// level..numberOfVariables()1. The backtracking state will advance
// to the next solution in which at least one of the values in the
// variables 0..level1 will have changed.
{
level = (level > numberOfVariables()) ? numberOfVariables() : level;
fill (values.begin()+level, values.end(), 0);
// Treat the top level1 values as a level1 digit number. Add one
// to the rightmost "digit". If this digit goes too high, reset it to
// zero and "carry one to the left".
int k = level1;
bool carry = true;
while (k >= 0 && carry)
{
values[k] += 1;
if (values[k] >= arities[k])
values[k] = 0;
else
carry = false;
k;
}
done = carry;
}
The variables being “pruned”, the ones in positions level
… numberOfVariables()
, are simply set to zero.
The normal ++
is simply a special case in which no variables are actually pruned, but the state is advanced to the next “number”.
BackTrack& BackTrack::operator++()
// Indicates that the combination of values associated with
// variables 0 .. nVariables1 (inclusive) has been judged unacceptable.
// The backtracking state will advance
// to the next solution in which at least one of the values in the
// variables 0..level1 will have changed.
{
prune(numberOfVariables());
return *this;
}
Applying Pruning
Now, to actually use pruning in a problem requires a bit more effort when we check the solution state. Instead of simply indicating whether the state is acceptable, we now want to indicate the smallest variable number that we want to change. Basically, for any rule that involves variables $v_j$ and $v_k$, if we find that the rule is violated, then the larger of j or k will need to be changed next.
4.6 Example: Pruning in 3Houses
Instead of a simple boolean OK
variable, we now use an integer to track the variable that we want changed on the next step.
int checkSolution(const BackTrack& bt)
// Check the state of bt to see if it represents a valid solution.
// Return 1 if a solution. If not a solution, return the smallest
// number of any problem variable known to be incorrect.
{
int knownIncorrect = bt.numberOfVariables();
// Implicit rule: each house is different
if (bt[occupantOfHouse1] == bt[occupantOfHouse2])
knownIncorrect = min(knownIncorrect,
max(occupantOfHouse1, occupantOfHouse2));
⋮
If we fail the test, we replace that integer with the larger of the variable numbers involved in the test, provided that we haven’t already found a lowernumbered variable for pruning.
The same pattern gets repeated many times for the implicit rules.
⋮
if (bt[occupantOfHouse1] == bt[occupantOfHouse3])
knownIncorrect = min(knownIncorrect,
max(occupantOfHouse1,
occupantOfHouse3));
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] == bt[occupantOfHouse3])
knownIncorrect = min(knownIncorrect,
max(occupantOfHouse2,
occupantOfHouse3));
⋮
and for the explicit rules as well.
⋮
// 1. Bob does not live in the green house.
int bobsHouse = indexOf(bt, bob,
occupantOfHouse1,
occupantOfHouse2,
occupantOfHouse3);
int greenHouse = indexOf(bt, green,
colorOfHouse1,
colorOfHouse2,
colorOfHouse3);
if (bobsHouse  occupantOfHouse1 == greenHouse  colorOfHouse1)
knownIncorrect = min(knownIncorrect,
max(bobsHouse, greenHouse));
// 2. Pat lives between Bob and Sue.
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] != pat)
knownIncorrect = min(knownIncorrect, occupantOfHouse2);
⋮
until we have checked all the rules and are ready to return.
⋮
if (knownIncorrect >= bt.numberOfVariables())
return 1;
else
return knownIncorrect;
}
BackTrack problem(9, 3);
// 9 questions, each with 3 possible answers
bool solved = false;
while ((!solved) && problem.more())
{
for (int i = 0; i < 9; ++i)
cout << problem[i] << ' ';
cout << endl;
int pruneAt = checkSolution(problem);
if (pruneAt < 0)
solved = true;
else
problem.prune(pruneAt+1);
}
The main program loop now is altered to use prune
instead of ++
.
4.6.1 Output After Pruning
If we run this version, the output is
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 2 2 0 2 0 0 0
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2
Bob lives in house 1, which is painted red and has roses
Pat lives in house 2, which is painted blue and has lilies
Sue lives in house 3, which is painted green and has daisies
That’s the whole thing! Only 12 potential solutions were examined, instead of more than 4000.
This shows that pruning can be critical to making backtracking work efficiently. But don’t get carried away. The amount of reduction you get from pruning varies considerably (we were probably a bit lucky here) and, even with pruning, the worst case is still exponential time.
4.7 Simpler Pruning
The minmax combinations in the previous example can be confusing. In many problems, an easier way to do backtracking with pruning is to work variable by variable, comparing each variable for conflicts with the earlier variables only:
bool solved = false;
while ((!solved) && problem.more())
{
for (int i = 0; i < 9; ++i)
cout << problem[i] << ' ';
cout << endl;
solved = true;
for (int variable = 0; variable < 9; ++variable)
{
if (isInconsistent(problem, variable))
{
problem.prune(variable+1);
solved = false;
break;
}
}
}
This requires us to replace the checkSolution
function with a function that examines a single variable at a time, comparing it only to lowernumbered variables in the problem.
That’s actually not particularly easy to do in the 3 houses problem, though in other problems it’s simpler than the full checkSolution
function.
// Return true if thar value in variable varNum cannot be
// reconciles with the values of the earlier variables.
bool isInconsistent (const BackTrack& bt, int varNum)
{
switch (varNum)
{
case colorOfHouse1:
break;
case colorOfHouse2:
if (bt[colorOfHouse2] == bt[colorOfHouse1])
return true;
break;
case colorOfHouse3:
if (bt[colorOfHouse3] == bt[colorOfHouse1])
return true;
if (bt[colorOfHouse3] == bt[colorOfHouse2])
return true;
break;
case flowersAtHouse1:
if ((bt[flowersAtHouse1] == lilies) // Lilies at the blue house
!= (bt[colorOfHouse1] == blue))
return true;
if (bt[flowersAtHouse1] != roses) // Leftmost house has roses
return true;
break;
case flowersAtHouse2:
if (bt[flowersAtHouse2] == bt[flowersAtHouse1])
return true;
if ((bt[flowersAtHouse2] == lilies) // Lilies at the blue house
!= (bt[colorOfHouse2] == blue))
return true;
break;
case flowersAtHouse3:
if (bt[flowersAtHouse3] == bt[flowersAtHouse1])
return true;
if (bt[flowersAtHouse3] == bt[flowersAtHouse2])
return true;
if ((bt[flowersAtHouse3] == lilies) // Lilies at the blue house
!= (bt[colorOfHouse3] == blue))
return true;
break;
case occupantOfHouse1:
if (bt[occupantOfHouse1] == bob // bob cannot live in green
&& bt[colorOfHouse1] == green)
return true;
if ((bt[occupantOfHouse1] == sue) // Sue planted daisies
!= (bt[flowersAtHouse1] == daisies))
return true;
break;
case occupantOfHouse2:
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] == bt[occupantOfHouse1])
return true;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] == bob // bob cannot live in green
&& bt[colorOfHouse2] == green)
return true;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] != pat) // pat must live between bob and sue
return true;
if ((bt[occupantOfHouse2] == sue) // Sue planted daisies
!= (bt[flowersAtHouse2] == daisies))
return true;
break;
case occupantOfHouse3:
if (bt[occupantOfHouse3] == bt[occupantOfHouse1])
return true;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse3] == bt[occupantOfHouse2])
return true;
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] == bob // bob cannot live in green
&& bt[colorOfHouse2] == green)
return true;
if ((bt[occupantOfHouse3] == sue) // Sue planted daisies
!= (bt[flowersAtHouse3] == daisies))
return true;
};
}
Notice that each case works either with the current variable in isolation with the others, e.g.,
case occupantOfHouse2:
⋮
if (bt[occupantOfHouse2] != pat) // pat must live between bob and sue
return true;
or compares with earlier variables only:
case colorOfHouse1: ➀
break;
case colorOfHouse2:
if (bt[colorOfHouse2] == bt[colorOfHouse1]) ➁
return true;
break;

➀ does not check to see if house1 has the same color as any other houses, because in our ordering of variables,
colorOfHouse1
is the very first variable, with index0
. 
➁ checks to make sure house2 and house1 do not have the same color. It does not, however, check house2 against house3, because
colorOfHouse3
is a later variable.
This is probably messier than the earlier solution, but that’s because the variables that make up the 3 houses problem are so different from one another, and each one needs “custom” handling. In problems where the nature of the variables is more uniform, we might be able to replace the multiway switch
with a much simpler structure.
5 Convergent
In contrast to “generateandtest”, some algorithms work by “generateandimprove”. An initial guess is made at a solution, which is successively improved by some process that, it is hoped, eventually “converges” to the correct solution.
Convergent algorithms are most common in numerical processing. For example, the code shown here is a convergent algorithm for computing square roots, given an initial guess. [^ Calculus diehards may recognize this as Newton’s Method.]
double sqrt (double x, double initialGuess)
{
double root = initialGuess;
do {
double last = root;
root = 0.5 * (root + x / root);
} while (abs(root  last) > 0.0001);
return root;
}
If we were to call, for example, sqrt(2.0,1.0)
(find the square root of 2 using an initial guess of 1), the successive values of root
would be: 1, 1.5, 1.416667, 1.414216, 1.414214, at which point the algorithm would return.
Many scientific and engineering programs depend upon convergent algorithms.
6 Dynamic programming
Dynamic programming is a variant on recursion that is useful when a recursive solution would repeatedly solve the same small subproblems.
The basic idea is to go ahead and solve the smaller problems, but to save the results in a data structure so that, if you need the same subproblem solved again, you can just fetch the prior answer from the data structure.
6.1 Example: combinations
Suppose we have a set of $n$ distinct items, and need to select $k$ of them at random (e.g., dealing 5 cards from a deck of 52). Assume that we aren’t concerned about the order in which we obtained the selected items, but we want to know how many different possible sets of items we could possible obtain.
The number of different combinations we can obtain by selecting k items from a set of n, without replacement, is written as $\left(\begin{array}{c} n \\ k \end{array} \right)$ or sometimes as $C(n,k)$.
It can be evaluated as
\[ C(n,n) = C(n,0) = 1 \]
\[ C(n,k) = C(n  1, k  1) + C(n  1, k), \; 0 < k < n \]
A straightforward recursive solution would be the code shown here.
long C(int n, int k)
{
if (k==0  k==n)
return 1;
else
return C(n1,k1) + C(n1,k);
}
But this wastes effort reevaluating smaller problem over and over again. For example,
\[ C(5,2) = C(4,1) + C(4,2) \]
No problem so far, but let’s expand each of the items on the right
\[ \begin{eqnarray*} C(4,1) & = & C(3,0) + C(3,1) \\ C(4,2) & = & C(3,1) + C(3,2) \end{eqnarray*} \]
and you can start to see that one subproblem $C(3,1)$ has already arisen in two different places.
Furthermore, if we were to expand these again, we would find that both occurrences of $C(3,1)$ and $C(3,2)$ will need the value of $C(2,1)$. In fact, most of the run time of this algorithm will be devoted to solving and resolving the same smaller problems, over and over.
How can we avoid this repetition? Well, let’s introduce a “2dimensional” vector, savedResults
, to store answers that we have already computed. savedResults(n,k)
will store the result of a previous evaluation of $C(n,k)$, or 1 if we haven’t solved that problem yet.
long C(int n, int k)
{
Matrix<long> savedResults(n+1, k+1)
for (int i = 0; i <= n; ++i)
for (int j = 0; j <= k; ++j)
savedResults(i,j) = 1;
return dynamic (n, k, savedResults);
}
Now our new version of this function first checks savedResults
to see if we already know the answer to a problem. If not, it gets the answer the “oldfashioned” way – by recursive calls.
long dynamicC (int n, int k, Matrix<long>& savedResults)
{
if (k==0  k==n)
return 1;
else if (savedResults(n,k) >= 0)
return savedResults(n,k);
else
{
long theAnswer = dynamicC(n1,k1) + dynamicC(n1,k);
savedResults(n,k) = theAnswer;
return theAnswer;
}
}
Also, whenever we have computed a new solution to a problem, we save that solution in savedResults
.
This approach will significantly speed up the calculation of C(n,k) for large values of n and k.
The idea of storing prior results of a function in a data structure ant checking to see if we have already computed a particular function value is called memoization (i.e., taking a memo).
6.1.1 Reversing the Calculation
But wait — there’s more!
Those recursive calls, when they take place, always ask for the solution to a “smaller” problem (either n, or k, or both are smaller). That’s typical of recursion – the recursive calls always need to be approaching some base case.
But in this problem, there are only so many possible smaller problems. (Namely, as many as we have slots for in SavedResults
). Because we never need the answer to a larger problem before we can answer a smaller one, we can turn the whole evaluation insideout and simply start by evaluating the simple problems, then the larger problems that can be solved from those, and so on, until we reach the original problem that we were really interested in.
long C(int n, int k)
{
Matrix<long> savedResults(n+1, k+1)
for (int i = 0; i <= n; ++i)
for (int j = 0; j <= k; ++j)
savedResults(i,j) = 1;
// Solve the easy problems first, working up towards
// the harder ones
for (n1 = 1; n1 <= n; ++n1)
{
savedResults[n1][0] = 1;
savedResults[n1][n1] = 1;
for (int k1 = 1; k1 < n1; ++k1)
savedResults(n1,k1) = savedResults(n11, k11) +
savedResults(n11, k1);
}
return savedResults(n, k);
}
And suddenly, there’s no recursion left at all!
This idea of computing and storing the results of all subproblems of the problem we really want to solve, in order from simplest/smallest up to the one we really want, is called dynamic programming.
Dynamic programming frequently not only prevents repeated recursion over common subproblems, but often introduces a structure over which a purely iterative solution is possible.
6.2 Example: Edit Distance
One of the classic problems solvable by dynamic programming is computing the “edit distance” between two strings: the minimum number of singlecharacter insertions, deletions, or replacements required to convert one string into another.
For example, the edit distance between “Hello” and “Jello” is 1. The edit distance between “good” and “goodbye” is 3. The edit distance between any string and itself is 0.
The edit distance can be used for such purposes as suggesting, in a spell checker, a list of plausible replacements for a misspelled word. For each word not found in the dictionary (and therefore presumably misspelled), list all words in the dictionary that are a small edit distance way from the misspelling.
6.2.1 Breaking the Problem Down
We can compute the edit distance between two strings by working from the ends. The three operations available to us are

Add one character to the end of a string

Remove one character from the end of a string

Change the character at the end of a string.
Suppose, for example, that we wanted to compute the edit distance between “Zeil” and “trials” (make up your own joke here). Starting with “Zeil”, we consider what would have to be done to get “trials” if the last step taken were “add”, “remove”, or “change”, respectively:

If we knew how to convert “Zeil” to “trial”, we could add “s” to get the desired word.

If we knew how to convert “Zei” to “trials”, then we would actually have “trialsl” and we could remove that last character to get the desired word.

If we knew how to convert “Zei” to “trial”, then we would actually have “triall” and we could change the final “l” to “s” to get the desired word.
Now, being intelligent humans that can actually look ahead intuitively at a problem, you and I may think one or two of these alternatives are obvious losers, but bear with me. We’re developing a general algorithm for notsointelligent computers.
Notice that what we have done is to reduce the original problem to 3 “smaller” problems: convert “Zeil” to “trial”, or “Zei” to “trials”, or “Zei” to “trial”.
6.2.2 Breaking it Down  Stage 2
We continue, recursively, to break down these problems:

Convert “Zeil” to “trial”, then add “s” to get the desired word.
To convert “Zeil” to “trial”,
 Add
 Convert “Zeil” to “tria”, then add “l”
 Remove
 Convert “Zei” to “trial”, giving “triall”, then remove. Change
 Convert “Zei” to “tria”, giving “trial”, and no change is actually needed.

Convert “Zei” to “trials”, giving “trialsl”, then remove the last character.
To convert “Zei” to “trials”,
 Add
 Convert “Zei” to “trial”, then add “s”
 Remove
 Convert “Ze” to “trials”, giving “trialsi”, then remove.
 Change
 Convert “Ze” to “trial”, giving “triali”, and change the final character.

Convert “Zei” to “trial”, giving “triall”, then change the final “l” to “s”.
To convert “Zei” to “trial”,
 Add
 Convert “Zei” to “tria”, then add “l”
 Remove
 Convert “Ze” to “trial”, giving “triali”, then remove.
 Change
 Convert “Ze” to “tria”, giving “triai”, and change the final character.
Now we have nine subproblems to solve, but note that the strings involved are getting shorter. Eventually we will get down to subproblems involving an empty string, such as
Convert "" to "xyz",'
which can be trivially solved by a series of “Adds”.
6.2.3 A Recursive Solution
Here you see the recursive implementation of the edit distance calculation.
int editDistance (string x, string y)
{
if (x == "")
return y.length(); // base case
else if (y == "")
return x.length(); // base case
else
{
int addDistance = editDistance(x, y.substr(0,y.length()1)) + 1;
int removeDistance = editDistance(x.substr(0,x.length()1), y) + 1;
int changeDistance = editDistance(x.substr(0,x.length()1),
y.substr(0,y.length()1))
+ (x[x.length()1] == y[y.length()1]) ? 0 : 1;
return min(min(addDistance, removeDistance), changeDistance);
}
}
In the main portion, we don’t know, off hand, whether the cheapest way to convert one string into another involves a final add, remove, or change, so we evaluate all three possibilities and return the minimum distance from among the three.
In each case, we recursively compute the distance (number of adds, removes, and changes) required to “set up” a final add, a final remove, or a final change. We add one to the add distance and the remove distance to account for the final add or remove. For the change distance, we add one only if the final characters in the strings are different (if not, no final change is required).
Interestingly enough, we can also solve the problem this way, by using recursion to first convert the trailing portions of the strings, then figure out what must be done at the start of the string.
int editDistance (string x, string y)
{
if (x == "")
return y.length(); // base case
else if (y == "")
return x.length(); // base case
else
{
int addDistance = editDistance(x, y.substr(1)) + 1;
int removeDistance = editDistance(x.substr(1), y) + 1;
int changeDistance = editDistance(x.substr(1), y.substr(1))
+ (x[0] == y[0]) ? 0 : 1;
return min(min(addDistance, removeDistance), changeDistance);
}
}
6.2.4 A Dynamic Programming Solution
We can solve the same problem via dynamic programming by, again, reversing the direction so that we work the smaller subproblems first, keeping the answers in a table.
For example, in converting “Zeil” to “trials”, we start by forming a table of the cost (edit distance) to convert "“ to ”“, ”t“, ”tr“, ”tri", etc.:
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
(The symbol λ denotes the empty string.)
In other words, we need 0 steps to convert "“ to ”“, 1 to convert ”“ to ”t“, 2 to convert ”“ to ”tr", and so on.
Next, we add a row to describe the cost of converting “Z” to "“, ”t“, ”tr“, … , ”trials":
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
OK, clearly we need 1 step to convert “Z” to "". How are the other entries in this row computed?
Looking Closer
Let’s back up just a bit:
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  ? 
What’s the minimum cost to convert “Z” to “t”? It’s the smallest of the three values computed as
 Add
 1 plus the cost of converting “Z” to "" (we get this cost by looking in the table to the left one position).
 Remove
 1 plus the cost of converting "“ to ”t“, giving ”tZ" (we get this cost by looking up one position).
 Change
 1 (because “Z” and “t” are different characters) plus the cost of converting "“ to ”" (we get this cost by looking diagonally up and to the left one position).
The last of these yields the minimal distance: 1.
Applying the General Rule
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  ? 
What’s the minimum cost to convert “Z” to “tr”? It’s the smallest of the three values computed as
 Add
 1 plus the cost of converting “Z” to “t” (we get this cost by looking to the left one position).
 Remove
 1 plus the cost of converting "“ to ”tr“, giving ”trZ" (we get this cost by looking up one position).
 Change
 1 (because “Z” and “t” are different characters) plus the cost of converting "“ to ”t" (we get this cost by looking diagonally up and to the left one position).
The last of these yields the minimal distance: 2.
Got the idea?
Question: Can you fill in the rest of that row before reading further (or looking back to where I showed it earlier)?
Filling In The Table
And we add the next row, using the same technique:
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
e  2  2  2  3  4  5  6 
The row after that becomes a bit more interesting. When we get this far …
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
e  2  2  2  3  4  5  6 
i  3  3  3  ? 
… we are looking at the cost of converting “Zei” to “tri”. It’s the smallest of the three values computed as
 Add
 1 plus the cost of converting “Zei” to “tr” (we get this cost by looking to the left one position).
 Remove
 1 plus the cost of converting “Ze” to “tri”, giving “trii” (we get this cost by looking up one position).
 Change
 Zero (because “i” and “i” are the same character) plus the cost of converting “Ze” to “tr” (we get this cost by looking diagonally up and to the left one position).
The last of these yields the minimal cost of 2.
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
e  2  2  2  3  4  5  6 
i  3  3  3  2  ? 
and then we can fill out the rest of the row:
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
e  2  2  2  3  4  5  6 
i  3  3  3  2  3  4  5 
and finally, the last row of the table:
λ  t  r  i  a  l  s  

λ  0  1  2  3  4  5  6 
Z  1  1  2  3  4  5  6 
e  2  2  2  3  4  5  6 
i  3  3  3  2  3  4  5 
l  4  4  4  3  3  3  4 
Note that this last row, again, has a situation where the cost of a change is zero plus the subproblem cost, because the two characters involved are the same (“l”).
From the lower right hand corner, then, we read out the edit distance between “Zeil” and “trials” as 4.
Here is an implementation of this dynamic programming approach:
int editDistance (const string& x, const string& y)
{
Matrix<int> distances (x.size()+1, y.size()+1);
// Initialize the matrix
for (int ix = 0; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
distances[ix][0] = ix;
for (int iy = 0; iy <= y.size(); ++iy)
distances[0][iy] = iy;
// Fill in rest of the matrix from left to right and top to bottom
for (int iy = 1; iy <= y.size(); ++iy)
for (int ix = 1; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
{
int costByDeleteOrInsert = min(1+distances[ix1][iy],
1+distances[ix][iy1]);
int costByReplacement = distances[ix1][iy1] +
((x[ix1] == y[iy1]) ? 0 : 1);
distances[ix][iy] = min(costByDeleteOrInsert, costByReplacement);
}
return distances[x.size()][y.size()];
}
This uses the 2D Matrix
template from much earlier in the semester. I could have used 2D arrays or vectors of vectors, but that might have obscured some of the algorithm behind the code to set up and tear down those structures.
It’s pretty clear that this algorithm is O(x.size()*y.size())
, both in time and in memory use.
We can actually reduce the memory use quite a bit. If you think about it, you never actually reach back more than one column to the left during these calculations. So we don’t really need the whole matrix, just the column that we are currently filling in and the column just to the left of that one. That observation leads to this version:
int editDistance (const string& x, const string& y)
{
int* priorColumn = new int[x.size()+1];
int* currentColumn = new int[x.size()+1];
// initialize column 0
for (int ix = 0; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
priorColumn[ix] = ix;
// Fill in rest of the matrix from left to right and top to bottom
for (int iy = 1; iy <= y.size(); ++iy)
{
currentColumn[0] = iy;
for (int ix = 1; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
{
int costByDeleteOrInsert = min(1+currentColumn[ix1],
1+priorColumn[ix]);
int costByReplacement = priorColumn[ix1] +
((x[ix1] == y[iy1]) ? 0 : 1);
currentColumn[ix] = min(costByDeleteOrInsert, costByReplacement)a;
}
swap (priorColumn, currentColumn);
}
int distance = priorColumn[x.size()];
delete [] priorColumn;
delete [] currentColumn;
return distance;
}
This algorithm is still O(x.size()*y.size())
in time but only O(x.size())
in memory use.
I often see this algorithm abused in practice. In a lot of cases, we want to know whether two strings differ from one another by no more than 2, 3, or some other small number of characters. Using this algorithm for that purpose on strings that are clearly very different from one another can waste a lot of time. So a more practical version puts an upper limit on how many changes are tolerable, and stops the process when that limit is exceeded in an entire column:
int editDistance (const string& x, const string& y, int upperLimit)
{
int* priorColumn = new int[x.size()+1];
int* currentColumn = new int[x.size()+1];
// initialize column 0
for (int ix = 0; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
priorColumn[ix] = ix;
// Fill in rest of the matrix from left to right and top to bottom
bool keepGoing = true;
for (int iy = 1; keepGoing && iy <= y.size(); ++iy)
{
currentColumn[0] = iy;
bool keepGoing = false;
for (int ix = 1; ix <= x.size(); ++ix)
{
int costByDeleteOrInsert = min(1+currentColumn[ix1],
1+priorColumn[ix]);
int costByReplacement = priorColumn[ix1] +
((x[ix1] == y[iy1]) ? 0 : 1);
currentColumn[ix] = min(costByDeleteOrInsert, costByReplacement)a;
keepGoing = keepGoing  (currentColumn[ix] <= upperLimit);
}
swap (priorColumn, currentColumn);
}
int distance = (keepGoing) ? priorColumn[x.size()] : upperLimit+1;
delete [] priorColumn;
delete [] currentColumn;
return distance;
}